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The table also indicates the modulation index increases when the dead time increases, indicating a less efficient use of the DC voltage. With a V DC voltage, if dead time would be increased above 3 us, the modulation index would be higher than 1and additional distortion would be introduced because of overmodulation.

Dead Time Is The “How Much Delay” Variable – Control Guru

To regenerate the initial conditions for your modified model, follow the steps listed below:. Change the Simulation Stop Time to 1 second.

Note that in order to generate initial conditions coherent with the 60 Hz voltage source phase angle, the Stop Time must an integer number of 60 Hz cycles. Start simulation. When simulation is completed, verify that steady state has been reached by looking at waveforms displayed on the scope. The final states which have been saved in the "xFinal" structure with time can be used as initial states for future simulations.

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Reduction of Dead Times in Geiger–Müller Counters

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Trial Software Product Updates. Simulation with zero dead time Start the simulation and observe voltages, current, power and control signals on the Scope block. Impact of dead time on harmonic distortion Now move the manual switch to its upper position to apply a dead time of 1 microsecond to the firing pulses. To regenerate the initial conditions for your modified model, follow the steps listed below: 1.


Change the Simulation Mode from "Normal" to "Accelerator". No, overwrite the modified version Yes. Sometimes dead time issues can be addressed through a simple design change. It might be possible to locate a sensor closer to the action, or perhaps switch to a faster responding device. Other times, the dead time is a permanent feature of the control loop and can only be addressed through detuning or implementation of a dead time compensator e.

Smith predictor.

The heat exchanger is a realistic simulation where the measured process variable PV is the temperature of hot liquid exiting the exchanger. To regulate this PV, the controller output CO moves a valve to manipulate the flow rate of a cooling liquid into the exchanger. The step test data below click for a larger view was generated by moving the process from one steady state to another.

This is the same point we identified when we computed T p in the previous article. Locate the point in time when the CO was stepped from its original value to its new value. Applying the three step procedure to the step test plot above: 1. As we had determined in the previous T p article, the PV starts a clear response to the CO step at Reading off the plot, the CO step occurred at Like a time constant, dead time has units of time and must always be positive.

Living Without Dead Time

For the types of processes explored on this site streams comprised of gasses, liquids, powders, slurries and melts , dead time is most often expressed in minutes or seconds. The tuning correlations and design rules assume consistent units. Control is challenging enough without adding computational error to our problems. As dead time becomes much greater than T p, a dead time compensator such as a Smith predictor offers benefit.

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A Smith predictor employs a dynamic process model such as an FOPDT model directly within the architecture of the controller. It requires additional engineering time to design, implement and maintain, so be sure the loop is important to safety or profitability before undertaking such a project. We can see the impact this has by looking ahead to the PI tuning correlations :.

A smaller Kc implies a less active controller.